Abstracts

Rene Hudec: AXRO 10 years: Introduction and Historical Background

AXRO 10 years: Introduction and Historical Background will be shortly presented and discussed

Paola Zuppella: Soft x-ray and EUV metrology for space applications

The knowledge and the control of the light polarization state in the VUV and EUV spectral regions play a fundamental role in space application, material science analysis and optical components development. We present an EUV spectroscopic ellipsometer facility for polarimetry in 90-160 nm spectral range. The system is a promising laboratory equipment suitable to characterize phase retarders, polarizers and other optics in the EUV region and to investigate the properties of thin films and optical coatings. A single layer more...

Przemyslaw Wachulak: Laser plasma EUV and SXR source based on a double stream gas puff target for testing and metrology applications of EUV/SXR optics: previous experiments and future plans.

In the talk I would like to present applications of a compact, pulsed laser plasma EUV and SXR source, based on a double stream gas puff target, for testing and metrology of EUV and SXR mirrors. Such optics, most often used in short wavelength optical systems, is also very important nowadays for astronomical applications. Additionally, future plans will be presented, related to the development of a dedicated system, which will be based on such source, for diagnostics of grazing incidence more...

Bernd Aschenbach: The maximal spin of an accreting black hole - the ´Thorne´ limit and the ´Aschenbach´ effect

The Kip Thorne limit for the spin of an accreting black is (the Kerr parameter) a=0.998, which is due to photons carrying away angular momentum. The Aschenbach effect describes a discovery that for the Kerr metric the otherwise monotonous increase of the velocity of a particle orbiting a spinning black hole with decreasing orbital radius is broken for a>0.9959. The orbital velocity runs through a decline and a minimum until it rises again, with decreasing orbital radius. Because of the more...

Zhanshan Wang: Development of soft X-ray telescope optics for EP mission

The Einstein Probe (EP) mission, which aims at discovering transients and monitoring variable objects in 0.5-4 keV X-rays, is a small scientific satellite dedicated to time-domain high-energy astrophysics. EP will employ a large instantaneous field-of-view (60°×60°) X-ray telescope (WXT), along with moderate spatial resolution (FWHM ~5) and energy resolution. It will also carry a follow-up observation X-ray telescope (FXT) with a smaller field-of-view - capable of much larger light-collecting power and better energy resolution than the main survey telescope. In more...

Steven Sembay: The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) on the SMILE mission

The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is an innovative space mission dedicated to studying the impact of the solar wind on the Earth\'s magnetic environment. SMILE will use, for the first time, the technique of X-ray imaging to track the response of the magnetic boundaries and magnetospheric cusps to the solar wind input. At the same time SMILE will image the northern aurora in the UV and will monitor the conditions of the solar wind and plasma in more...

Stephen O’Dell: The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE): Overview

The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) will expand the information space for study of cosmic sources, by adding polarization to the properties (time, energy, and position) observed in x-ray astronomy. Recently selected as a NASA Astrophysics Small Explorer (SMEX) mission, IXPE will be launched into an equatorial orbit in 2021. The IXPE mission will provide scientifically meaningful measurements of the x-ray polarization of a few dozen sources in the 2–8 keV band, including polarization maps of several of the x-ray more...

Andrzej Bartnik: Reflective optics for laboratory EUV and X-ray sources: creation of low temperature plasmas and detection of weak EUV signals

X-ray or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) space telescopes are equipped with different kinds of specialized reflective optical systems. The systems are prepared for imaging of astrophysical objects located at extremely long distances. In laboratory arrangements similar optical systems can be utilized for X-ray/EUV imaging or formation of the X-ray/EUV radiation beams. The essential differences concern distances from radiation sources to the corresponding optical systems and intensities of the collected radiation. The distance to any astrophysical object can be regarded as infinity, more...

Matteo Guainazzi: The Athena mirror calibration plan

In this talk I will present the Athena mirror (ground-based) calibration plan. It is based on a multi-tier strategy, aiming at building a database of measurements able to reproduce the behavior of the Athena telescope through a characterization of its elements, from the individual plates to the Mirror Assembly. I will also present updated predictions of effective area performance for the current Athena baseline mission profile.

Richard Willingale: The Lobster Eye Point Spread Function

The PSF of the lobster eye optic has the well know cruciform shape with a central focused spot and cross-arms. This form is more difficult to characterise than the PSF of a conventional telescope and poses peculiar problems for the analysis of images produced by the lobster eye. I will discuss ways of characterising the PSF including a simple analytical model which matches the measured PSF produced by MCOs operating as a lobster eye and the simulated PSF produced by more...

Vladimír Tichý: Affect of manufacturing inaccuracies to performances of lobster eye optics

Performances of lobster eye systems are affected by manufacturing inaccuracies. The mirrors are assembled with a finite accuracy and they are not ideally flat. It causes mainly decreasing of angular resolution. Mentioned manufacturing inaccuracies are simulated and results of ray-tracing simulations are presented. Resulting performances, namely the spatial resolution are calculated and the effect of manufacturing inaccuracies is evaluated.

Vladimír Tichý: Analytical calculation and maximization of effective collecting area of lobster eye optics

Effective collecting represents one of principal parameters of optical systems. The common requirement is to obtain as large effective collecting area as it is possible. The analytical method of calculating effective collecting area (length) and its maximisation is presented. The results are applicable for a Schmidt as well as for an Angel lobster eye.

Vladimir Karas: Light rays, wave fronts, and X-ray flares in strong gravity

Accretion onto black holes often proceeds via an accretion disc or a temporary disc-like pattern. Variability features observed in light curves as well as theoretical models of accretion flows suggest that accretion discs tend to be inhomogeneous - variety of substructures (clumps) emerge within the flow. Rapid orbital motion of individual clumps then modulates the observed signal in X-rays. Furthermore, changes of polarization the observed signal are expected as a result of general relativity (GR) effects. In this contribution we more...

Jessica Gaskin: Tracking the Elusive Lynx into the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey

NASA’s spectacular Chandra X-Ray Observatory was launched in 1999, and has since provided the astronomy community with an incredibly sharp view of the high-energy universe. In many ways, this keen view has become the expected norm that the community has grown to know and love. The focus of this talk is on the development of a concept study, funded by NASA, for a mission that will ultimately succeed Chandra. The Lynx telescope will maintain the fine angular resolution that the more...

Vojtech Simon: Studies of the long-term X-ray activity with the planned satellites

We show the perspectives and ossibilities of observing the X-ray binary sources with the planned satellites. We pay attention to the long-term activity of these sources. Monitors of X-ray emission are important instruments for observing the activity on the long timescales (even of years). We show that the X-ray spectrum (especially its hardness) largely determines the observability of a given object (or a type of objects) with a monitor in the specific band. We show the perspectives of observing the more...

Norbert Meidinger: The Wide Field Imager Instrument for Athena

ESA’s next large X-ray mission Athena will be equipped with two focal plane cameras, a Wide Field Imager (WFI) and an X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU). The WFI instrument is designed for imaging and spectroscopy over a large field of view, and high count rate observations up to and beyond 1 Crab source intensity. Both cameras share alternately a mirror system based on silicon pore optics with a focal length of 12 m and an unprecedented large effective area. Here more...

Roman Krivonos: Decoupling spatially confused X-ray emission in the NuSTAR data

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR, Harrison et al., 2013) mission carries two co-aligned twin X-ray telescopes operating in a wide energy range from 3 to 78 keV, with angular resolution of 18’’ (FWHM). However, due to the wide wings of the NuSTAR PSF, the corresponding HPD reaches 60’’ (Madsen et al. 2015), which can lead to a spatial confusion of the X-ray sources. In two such cases, AGN and ULX in the nearby galaxy NGC 5643, and the more...

Vladimír Dániel: LE X-ray Telescope for PSU Rocket Experiment

The design of Lobster Eye X-ray Telescope will be presented. The telescope is one of the payloads of Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) prepared by Pennsylvania State University (PSU). The telescope was designed, developed, tested and assembled to the WRX-R rocket during year 2017.

Ondřej Pejcha: The Rugged Landscape of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

The collapse of the core and the associated supernova explosion mark the end of life of most massive stars, but the mechanism of explosion is poorly understood and perhaps even unknown. Some of its puzzling features were recently observed in the statistics of supernova progenitors, explosion energies, nickel yields, and in the remnant neutron star and black hole mass functions. I will describe my theoretical studies of the supernova explosion mechanism, its dependence on the progenitor star structure, and the more...

Giovanni Pareschi: Progress in the development of X-ray optics made of glass for high-resolution and high throughput telescopes

In this talk we will report on the development of X-.ray optics made of glass ongoing at the Brera Astronomical Observatory-INAF. The talk will focus on different approaches being pursued like the cold replication of thin segments for future high throughput missions (like the FORCE hard X-ray mission under study in Japan) and the direct polishing of monolithic shells , a possible solution for making the mirrors of the LYNS high angular resolution mission now investigated in USA.

Lenka Mikulickova: Thin films for multifoil X-ray optics

We present multifoil X-ray optics with gold reflective thin films and the role of thin films in multifoil X-ray optics.

John Nousek: A Baker\'s Dozen: 13 Years of Swift

Swift continues to be the premier rapid response astrophysical observatory. I will describe our work on improved automation, and our experiences is scheduling up to 1400 targets in time scales of a few hours to pursue electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave and high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

Max Collon: Optics development for ATHENA

Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), developed at cosine with the European Space Agency (ESA) and several academic and industrial partners, provides lightweight, yet stiff, high-resolution x-ray optics. This technology enables ATHENA to reach an unprecedentedly large effective area in the 0.2 - 12 keV band with an angular resolution better than 5\'\'. After developing the technology for 50 m and 20 m focal length, this year has witnessed the first 12 m focal length mirror modules being produced. The technology development more...

Maurizio Vannoni: Metrology challenges during installation of transport mirrors at European XFEL

The European XFEL just came in operation last 1st of September. Some peculiarities of the Free Electron Laser gives us very high requirements about the specifications of the X-ray mirrors and how much care has to be used in the installation. In this talk, I will describe the procedure that we followed in the installation of the mirrors, the problems we discovered and the future challenges about better metrology and control of the optics will be introduced.

Thorsten Döhring: Counterbalancing iridium coating stress for astronomical X-ray mirrors

High coating stress within applied iridium layers is able to deform thin mirror substrates. Advanced sputtering methods to overcome this potential problem for future astronomical X-ray telescopes are presented.

Mikhail Pavlinsky: ART-XC/SRG overview and some results of ground tests of X-ray mirror system with focal plane detector

ART-XC is a X-ray grazing incidence mirror telescopes array with operating energy range 5-30 keV on the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission, that is currently scheduled for launch in 2018. This instrument was developed by the Space Research Institute (IKI) and the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed and fabricated flight models of X-ray mirror modules. The ART-XC instrument will conduct an all-sky survey simultaneously with another instrument of the SRG more...

Lorenzo Natalucci: Status of the AHEAD program for Integrating Activities in High Energy Astrophysics

Since 2015, AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) has provided a framework to bring together Europe\'s science community working in this highly competitive field. AHEAD is an ongoing project funded by the EU Horizon 2020 programme for Research Infrastructures, with a main goal to integrate efforts by the European science community and keeping them at the cutting edge of science and technology. AHEAD is offering funding opportunities, also open to participants outside Europe, for transnational visits, workshops more...

Elias Kammoun: Spectral and polarimetric signatures of X-ray obscuration events in AGN

X-ray eclipses of the innermost regions by distant clouds (associated to the broad line region and/or the molecular torus) have been detected in several local bright active galactic nuclei (AGN). Furthermore, X-ray emission in AGN is expected to be polarized due to reprocessing from the accretion disc and further distant material. Relativistic effects play a major role in the observed emission as general and special relativity will change both the spectral shape and the polarization signal according to the metric. more...

Lorenzo Amati: THESEUS: a future key mission for multi-messenger astrophysics

The Transient High-Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a space mission concept aimed at exploiting Gamma-Ray Bursts for investigating the early Universe and at providing a substantial advancement of multi-messenger and time-domain astrophysics. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRBs and X-ray transients detection over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) with 0.5-1 arcmin localization, an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV and high sensitivity to transient sources more...

Thorsten Döhring: JEUMICO and TRILAMICO: Dimensions of successful Bavarian-Czech cooperation (poster)

In December 2017 the two projects JEUMICO (an acronym for “Joint European Mirror Cooperation”) and TRILAMICO (standing for “Trilateral Mirror Collaboration”) will end. Different aspects of this Bavarian-Czech collaboration between Aschaffenburg University and the Czech Technical University in Prague will be discussed. The multiple dimensions of this cooperation are scientific achievements, public relation measures, internationalization of education, financial aspects, intercultural differences, and also the actual political situation within Europe.

Jakub Ripa: Testing Isotropic Universe via Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by Fermi / GBM

The sky distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) has been intensively studied for more than two decades. Most of these studies, test the isotropy of GRBs based on the sky number density distribution. We propose a new method which inspects the isotropy of the properties of GRBs such as their duration, fluences and peak fluxes at various energy bands and different time scales. The method was applied on the Fermi / Gamma-ray Burst Monitor data. We found a relatively significant feature more...

Tomáš Báča: On X-Ray orbital data from VZLUSAT-1 nanosatellite

We present current results of X-Ray camera payload onboard VZLUSAT-1 nanosatellite, the first Czech cubesat ever launched into Earth\'s orbit. Embedded hardware and software was designed from the ground up to allow real-time image processing, filtering and compressing of captured images onboard the 10 x 10 x 20 cm CubeSat. Together with miniature lobster-eye optics, the satellite can capture X-Ray photons from astronomical objects, mostly the Sun. The satellite was successfully launched on June 23rd, 2017 to a 510 km Sun-synchronous Low-Earth orbit. The more...

Veronika Stehlikova: Study of multiple layers coatings for X-ray mirrors (poster)

This contribution presents the theoretical background for a coating campaign on multiple layers for X-ray applications and first results of prepared samples testing. Simulations using different overcoats were performed to improve the reflectivity properties of thin iridium coatings designed for X-ray optics focusing X-rays in the energy range up to 10 keV. Samples based on these simulations were prepared and will be tested considering the properties influencing the X-ray reflectivity, like layer homogeneity, density and surface micro-roughness. Furthermore coating stress has to be considered in the more...

Jiri Svoboda: AGN spectral states from simultaneous UV and X-ray observations by XMM-Newton

It is generally believed that the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) and stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries (XRB) work in a similar way. Koerding et al. (2006) suggested that different types of AGN correspond to different spectral states of XRB. In our recent work, we extended their analysis by using data of higher quality - we used the whole XMM-Newton archive to extract a sample of about 1500 sources with high-quality simultaneous UV and X-ray measurements more...

Yong Chen: Introduction of SFA onboard eXTP

Spectroscopic Focusing Array (SFA) is an X-ray mirror array onboard the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarization (eXTP) mission, which consists 9 nested Wolter I grazing-incidence mirrors with a focal length 5.25m. SFA is designed for simultaneous spectral and timing observations in an energy range of 0.5-10keV. The effective area is 5400 cm2@1keV, and the field of view is 12 arcmin in diameter. The angular resolution is less than 1 arcmin (Half Power Diameter, HPD). SFA uses silicon drift detector (SDD) more...

Wenda Zhang: Inferring radiative efficiency of ULXs from X-ray luminosity function

We calculate the population average radiative efficiency of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) from observed X-ray luminosity function of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) in nearby star forming galaxies. We use the radiative efficiency to constrain the super-Eddington models, and find that a physical model in which the luminosity increase logarithmically with mass accretion rate above the Eddington can explain the observed XLF quite well. With this model, the observed X-ray luminosity function could be well fit by two populations with different Eddington luminosities and the fit yields reasonable physical more...

Probst Anne-Catherine: Interdependency of sputtering conditions, microstructure and X-ray reflectivity for iridium coatings

Iridium belong to the materials used as reflective coatings for X-ray mirrors dedicated to investigations of astronomical X-rays in the photon energy range below 10 keV. During the development of reflective coatings for thin x-ray mirrors in lightweighted telescopes, we prepared iridium coatings by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different sputtering pressures. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy as well as X-ray reflectometry were applied to clarify the interdependency between sputtering conditions, film microstructure, layer density and surface micro-roughness. Based on more...

Gabriel Torok: Rapid X-ray variability and properties of compact stars (two decades after RXTE\'s launch)

The Rossi X-ray timing explorer, which operated from 1995 to 2012, has provided a large amount of NS data. Timing analysis of the X-ray flux in more than a dozen NS systems reveals outstanding correlations between frequencies of two characteristic peaks present in the high-frequency part of the power-density spectra. We discuss a simple analytic relation that well reproduces these correlations. We outline a possible physical interpretation of the relation\'s parameters and explore the impact of the obtained results in more...

Romana Mikusincova: Accreting black holes via X-ray polarimetry

In this talk I will summarise our polarization simulations for the X-ray binary GRS1915+105 in the thermal state with the aim to limit a black hole spin and inclination of the system. For this purpose, we simulate polarimetric properties of this source based on spectral observations. We create theoretical dependences of polarization angle and degree on energy with the numerical code for multicolour black body emission from accretion disks, KYNBB, developed at the Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of more...

Giuseppe Vacanti: Optics development for ATHENA

Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), developed at cosine with the European Space Agency (ESA) and several academic and industrial partners, provides lightweight, yet stiff, high-resolution x-ray optics. This technology enables ATHENA to reach an unprecedentedly large effective area in the 0.2 - 12 keV band with an angular resolution better than 5\'\'. After developing the technology for 50 m and 20 m focal length, this year has witnessed the first 12 m focal length mirror modules being produced. The technology development more...

Peter Friedrich: eROSITA Status

The eROSITA X-ray telescope has been built by MPE from 2007 until 2016. Final environmental tests of the telescope have been performed by the end of 2016. Then, in early 2017, it has been shipped to Moscow, where it is going to be integrated on the SRG spacecraft. After the successful incoming inspection the tests of interfaces with the spacecraft systems begun and are still ongoing.

Rene Hudec: KB X-ray Optics for Astrophysics: Recent Status (poster)

X-ray optics in KB (Kirkpatrick Baez) arrangement represent promising alternative to Wolter optics in common use. We will present some new results including KB module developed and tested within the EU AHEAD project.

Rene Hudec: LE X-ray Optics for Astrophysics: Recent Status (poster)

X-ray optics in LE (Lobster Eye) arrangement represent important part of future X-ray wide field telescopes and monitors. We will present some new results in the design, development, tests and applications of LE X-ray optics with emphasis on astrophysics,.

Rene Hudec: LE X-ray Optics for Astrophysics: Recent Status (poster)

X-ray optics in LE (Lobster Eye) arrangement represent important part of future X-ray wide field telescopes and monitors. We will present some new results in the design, development, tests and applications of LE X-ray optics with emphasis on astrophysics,.

Rene Hudec: X-ray optics based on biomimetical principle (poster)

Some types of X-ray optics in recent study and development are based on biomimetics. We will give short overview inluding discussion whether the newly discovered multimirror animal eyes may also find applications in science in general and in X-ray astrophysics in particular,

Frank Siewert: Ultra-precise focusing mirrors for Synchrotron and FEL application

This contribution will discuss the state of ultra-precise focusing and re-focussing mirrors in use at Synchrotron and FEL-sources to provide high flux of coherent photons for state of the art experimental end-stations. The focusing mirrors used in such cases are Kirkpatrick-Baez-mirrors of elliptical cylinder shape characterized by a residual figure error of a few nanometre rms. The mid- and high-spatial frequency error requires a micro-roughness of < 0.2 nm rms. The metrology used to characterize these optics is a limiting more...

Michal Dovciak: X-ray polarization by reflection from accretion disc in AGN

Theoretical computations showed that the reflection of X-ray radiation from the accretion disc in AGN should result in significant (detectable) polarization signals. Originating from a primary power-law coronal emission situated above the disc surface, X-ray photons are partially reprocessed by Compton scattering in the disc material and show a polarization level that heavily depends on geometry of scattering. In this contribution, we will examine the polarization in the lamp-post geometry scenario, where a compact patch of corona is positioned on more...

Francesco Tamborra: X-ray polarization as a tool to understand coronae in accreting sources

Up-scattering of low-energy photons by Inverse Compton on a hot gas of electrons (i.e. Comptonization) is an important mechanism in Astrophysics. In particular, in accreting sources such as X-Ray Binaries (XRBs) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) this mechanism is believed to be responsible for their hard X-ray emission: soft photons produced by the accretion disc are Comptonized by a corona of hot electrons whose physical parameters and especially the geometry are not well known. Spectroscopical analysis alone is not able to discriminate between different geometries and parameters more...

Yan-Ji Yang: The Design of FXT onboard EP

The Follow-up X-ray Telescope (FXT) is one of the payloads onboard the Einstein Probe (EP) mission. It is designed to observe the transients and burst sources, triggered by the Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WXT), which is the other payload onboard EP. FXT uses a nested Wolter I X-ray telescope with the focal length of 1.6m, the same as them on the eROSITA satellite, which effective area is no less than 100 cm2@1.25keV on axis, and the field of view is more...

Petr Skala: Image processing of historical astronomical plates (poster)

Historical astronomical plates were main source of data for more than century. There are still hundreds of thousands plates which has never been processed by modern computers. There are some standard ways how to process images aplyable on astronomic plates. But also many specific metods that must be developed for processing of plates.

Vadim Burwitz: PANTER: The AHEAD X-Ray Optics Joint Research Activity in the Light of ATHENA

One of the important topics of the AHEAD joint research activity covers the characterization of the ATHENA silicon pore optics, as well as other optics technologies such as slumped glass, micropore, Kirk-Patrick Baez, and polished silicon optics. The other ATHENA related activity involves the planning, setting up and testing of the BEATRIX test facility for quickly checking the the optical performance of SPO modules just after production. This requires a performance characterization of a high quality optic with the parallel more...

Rene Hudec: A Lobster-Eye/Coded Mask Hybrid Wide Field Imaging X-ray Telescope for Transient Sources (poster)

Paul Gorenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Rene Hudec, Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and CTU FEE in Prague The importance of detecting and identifying transient X-ray sources, which was already well understood, has increased following the “Multi Messenger” gravity wave event of August 17, 2017. A point source of variable X-rays, gamma-rays, and visible light followed the gravity wave detected by LIGO. A very wide field X-ray imager with much more sensitivity and larger field of view more...